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Before yesterdaySimple Science

What is water level?

Β Put a plastic or glass tube in a glass full of water. The level of water in the glass tube rises higher than the level of water in the glass. Why?

To study its cause thoroughly,Β take three or four glassesΒ or plastic tubes of different diameters and put them in a glass of water. You will be surprised to see that in all the tubes, the level of water has risen to different heights but the water in the glass is still quite steady and still. The water level in the tube of the least diameter is the highest whereas it is lowest in the tube of the maximum diameter. Why does it happen?



Take a test tube or a long, narrow and cylindrical bottle and fill half of it with water. Now observe the level carefully. It is highest at the sides andΒ gets gradually concave in the middle! This curved level of water is called meniscus and the reason of its such formation isΒ the force of attraction exerted by the walls of the tube or the bottle on some portion ofΒ water due to adhesion.Β Normally, you can reckon this adhesion to be a force which raises the level of water on the sides of a tube. Actually, this action of raising the waterΒ levelΒ higher is called the capillary action. This capillary effect is strongest on the tube with the least diameter because in this condition, a large portion ofΒ theΒ Owing to the adhesive force, it remains in the fold of the attraction working on it.

Now see what happens if you apply grease inside the tube before filling it with water. This time the level of water instead of curving downwards would seem to be curving upwards. Why? It is so because the molecules of water do not get attracted as much by grease as by the plastic or glass. In this case, the mutual attraction of water molecules is more than the attraction caused by the grease, which is known as cohesion and notΒ adhesion. waterΒ remains in direct contact with the sides of the tube.

Water acts like a thin film

Β Some very small insects can be seen moving with great ease on the surface of water. How are they able to move on the surface of a liquid?

Place a big bowl on a table and fill it with water. When the water in it becomesΒ still, place a needle

horizontally on the water level, very carefully and watch the happening. If the needle has been placed with due caution, you will be surprised to see that it keeps on floating on the water surface. If it sinks, do not get disheartened. Try again. Now you can do one more thing. This time take a piece of tissue paper, float it on the water surface and then place the needle on it. The paper will sink automatically the moment it gets thoroughly soaked but the needle will continue to float.



Do you know the reason why the needle floats? In fact, the surface of water acts as a thin film which is known as the surface tension. The molecules in water attract each other and the molecules on the surface get attracted closer in comparison to the ones below the surface. In this way, the strong forces of attraction among the molecules present on the surface of the water prevent the sinking of the needle. It is the same strongΒ attraction which forms a sort of platform by creating a film-like effect on the water surface on which small insects can be observed sauntering with ease.

What is coalescing?

In extremely cold regions, the water in rivers, ponds, etc. gets frozen and changes into ice. On this ice, how is it possible for the people to slide with the help of a special type of footwear known as ice-skates? Can you explain the reason behind it?

Take a 50cm long piece of metallic wire (it can be a fuse wire or any other wire of lesser gauge but quiteΒ sturdy). Tie one pencil each on both the ends. These will work as handles for you and will help you, in keeping the wire taut.



Now take a small wooden plank and place on it a big piece of ice. Place the wire on the ice-piece in such a way that one pencil remains hanging on each side of the plank. Now hold the pencils in each of your hands and pull them slowly downwards. See, what happens. The wire starts cutting the ice and begins to go down, and after a while, goes across the whole piece of ice to reach its bottom. But surprisingly, the ice does not get divided into two separate parts. Though the pressure of the wire goes on melting and cutting the ice, yet the moment the wire penetrates the ice piece, the two parts of ice immediately coalesce and freeze. What actually happens is that the pressure produces heat and melts the ice. TheΒ moment the pressure is removed, the heat dissipates and, hence, the coalescing of the separated ice blocks and their refreezing becomes possible. In the game of ice-skating, the weight of the entire body of the skater gets concentrated on the iron strips fixed below the ice skates; which exerts pressure on the ice and produces heat. This heat melts the ice, and the water thus got from the melted ice starts acting as a lubricant to help the skates slide.

Natural process for evaporation and condensation

Β During rains, a lot of water falls from the sky. Sometimes, the rain continues for hours. Where does so much water come from?

For this experiment, it would be better if you could procure one aluminium kettle

for boiling the water.

Otherwise, any vessel can serve the purpose. Cover it with a lid in such a way that there remains a little gap between the lid and the vessel for the exit of the steam. Now boil the water till the steam starts coming out. Take some pieces of ice or chilled water in a pan with a handle.



Now see from where the rain water comes in the sky. Hold the pan at some distance from the nozzle of the kettle blowing out the steam and see what happens. The hot steam strikes the outer chilled wall of the pan and gets converted again into water drops, i.e., the process of condensation takes place. When many such drops combine together and become too heavy to withstand their own weight, they start falling to the ground. This precisely is the process by which the rain falls.

The heat emanating from the sun converts the water of the rivers, lakes and the seas into vapour and thus, water in the form of vapour gets absorbed in the atmosphere. As the air ascends, it becomes colder and the vapours present in itΒ take the shape of tiny drops of water owing to the colder climate above. A large collection of such water drops forms the cloud. When the water drops in the cloud become too heavy to withstand their own weight, they start falling to the earth and thus, we get the delight of rains.

What is condensation?

Β When you pour some cold (chilled) drink into a tumbler, you will find some droplets shining on the outer side of the tumbler, however, carefully you pour it. Do you know why it so happens?

Take a tumbler and fill half of it with water. Now put some ice-cubes into it and wait for sometime. The ice will melt and start cooling the water as well as the tumbler.



After a while, you will find that the outer wall of the tumblerβ€”so far quite cleanβ€”has now some shining droplets of water on it. Where have these droplets come from on the outer wall of the tumbler? Also, you will notice that the warmer the surroundings, the more quickly the droplets will shine on the outer side of the tumbler and in greater number.

You have already understood the process of evaporation by earlier experiments. On all open water surfaces, this process goes on; the process in which water changes to vapour form and gets absorbed in the atmosphere. But whenever it comes into contact with a cool surface, it comes back into the liquid form like the droplets you saw on the tumbler. This subsequent process is known as condensation.

With the increase in temperature, the process of evaporation also speeds up. Similarly, the process of condensation is also faster if it takes place on a cooler surface

Checkout another experiment.

Why ice floats on water?

Cold water is heavy but ice, which is another form of cold water, floats on water despite being a solidβ€”how does it happen?



As water gets colder, its volume decreases and it becomes heavier but this process continues only upto a certain temperature, which is 4Β°C. This is the temperature at which the density of water is maximum and the volume is minimum.

When water takes the form of ice, its volume increases, i.e., it covers more space in this form. The mass, however, remains unchanged when water is converted into ice. Neither anything added nor taken away from it. So the mass remains unchanged while the volume increases, which is quite apparent. It means that when water changes into ice, its density decreases. Anything, whose density is less than the density of water, floats on water and since the density of ice like that of wood, cork, etc. is less than the density of water, it too floats on water.

There are various advantages as well as disadvantages of this phenomenon. In a very cold country, the river waters get frozen due to extremely low temperature. But, as a matter of fact, it is only the upper surface of the river that gets frozen and becomes solid. The water beneath it remains in the liquid form and thus, the flora and fauna are saved from total annihilation. But on the other hand, those who travel by sea can alone tell you the grave dangers involved due to the large floating icebergsβ€” the large chunks of iceβ€”in the sea. These icebergs, whose larger parts are immersed in water, when come underneath the ship, act as sharp knives cutting and damaging the hull of the ship easily.

Checkout another experiment.

Why we feel cold when we are wet?

Can you tell why we feel colder when air touches our body soon after taking a bath?


Take a small piece of cotton. Dip it in water and rub it gently over your palm. It will become wet. First of all, you will feel its wetness only, but after a few seconds, you will experience a cool sensation on that part of your hand. Do you know the reason? You already know that when evaporation takes place, the liquid derives heat from everything that comes in its contact. So it must be quite clear that the heat is being absorbed from that part of your hand where the evaporation is taking place. The resulting loss of temperature at that particular part will cause the feeling of coolness.

Now take some spirit instead of water in the cotton and dab it gently on your hand. You will feel the difference. You will feel a much cooler sensation on that part of your hand where you have applied spirit than before. The evaporation of spirit takes place much quicker than that of water and, therefore, it needs heat more quickly. This is why, the intensity of the feeling of cold is more profound than before.
Now, you must have understood why we feel colder after taking a bath. On a wet body, the evaporation takes place as usual, but owing to its contact with air, it takes place at a faster pace, resulting in more loss of heat from the body, with the result that the temperature of the body surface comes down in this process of evaporation and we feel colder. So have you followed the cause behind it?

Checkout another article by scrolling down

What is the effect of strong wind and heat on evaporation?

Β To see the effect of the strong wind on evaporation, conduct a small experiment. Moisten both sides ofyour slate with a wet cloth. Now continue to blow air from your mouth on one side of it, or, as an alterative, keep this side in front of a moving fan.



Which side do you think would get dry first? The side exposed to the continuous draught of air or the other one? Your answer will be correct if you say that the side exposed to the fan will dry first. Strong wind or draught of air blows off the small particles of water or moleculesβ€”as they are calledβ€”and paves the way for the other molecules to rise higher up. To find out the effect of heat on evaporation, take two towels of similar dimensions. Wet these two towels liberally with water so that both the towels absorb almost the same amount of water. Hang one of them in the sun and the other in the shade. For this experiment, choose a day when there is no fast moving wind. Now see, which towel dries first.

Surely, the towel lying in the sun will be the first to get dried. The molecules of water are taken away much sooner by the hot wind in comparison to that by the cool air because the molecules of hot air move faster than those of cool air.

Why wind blows and how?

Everyone knows that the wind blows. But how? What is the reason of its motion?Β 

To do this experiment, first of all, make a wind-wheel. Take a sheet of paper of the size, 30 cm x 30 cm and draw two lines joining the corners diagonally. Taking that point as centre where these two lines intersect, draw a circle of 10 cm radius. Then take a pair of scissors and cut the portion of the 4 lines lying outside the circle. Now bring the tip of each of the corners to the centre of the circle and stick them there. Pivot the wheel on a pin stuck into a piece of wood. Your wind-wheel is now ready to rotate.



Hold this wind-wheel some 50 cm above a burning furnace or angithi, or a heater or any other source of heat and see what happens. The wind-wheel starts rotating on its own, doesn't it? But why does it stop when removed from the source of heat? Do you know the reason?

When the air expands on heating, its molecules get dispersed by the heat and it becomes light. Whereas the portion of the air that does not come in contact withΒ the heat, remains heavy and slides itself down by pushing the warm and light air, higher up. In this way, a cyclic motion is created which imparts speed to the air and also to the rotation of the wind-wheel.

What is evaporation?

To understand this, do a minor and the most ordinary type of experiment. Take three identical saucers and keep them at a place, quite close to one another. Now pour one spoonful of water in one saucer, two spoonfuls in the second and three spoonfuls in the third one, and continue observing them at frequent intervals.



After sometime, you will observe that the saucer having one spoonful of water gets emptied first of all, followed by the second saucer with two spoonfuls of water and lastly, the third saucer having three spoonfuls of water.

The process which makes the water slowly turn into vapour, on its own, at the atmospheric (room ) temperature is called evaporation. However, this takes place only from the surface of the liquid. This fact can also be verified by an experiment.

For it, you require a saucer, a tumbler and an open-mouthed, narrow and long bottle. Pour two spoonfuls of water in each vessel and keep them together at a place. They all have equal quantity of water but do they get emptied together? No? Then keep on observing as to which one gets emptied first.

First of all, the saucer will become empty, followed by the tumbler and lastly, the bottle, which proves that the more the area of the surface of the liquid, the more will be the evaporation.

Has air any weight?- Science mug experiment

Β The air has weightβ€”to prove this fact by an experiment may seem to you the most difficult task so far.

Quite possibly it might prove to be the easiest one also, so easy that you may not even enquire about it! Because, it is such a type of an experiment, if once its basic concept enters your brain, you will find it very easy. Otherwise, you may waste your whole day ruminating over it.



First take two balloons, a string and a bamboo stick, about one metre long. Tie the string exactly at the middle point of the stick and hang the stick high up somewhere so that it remains in a horizontal position, when hanging freely. Take two balloons, inflate them almost equally and tie them with strings of equal length.

After you have done this, tie the strings oi one of the balloons to one end of the stick and make a loose knot in the string of the other balloon, so that, by adjusting the knot on the stick, you can bring the stick back to the horizontal position.

The horizontal position of the stick shows that both the balloons have equal weight. Now take a pin and prick one of the balloons. The balloon will burstΒ with a bang and the air in it will escape, causing the stick to tilt to one side. Thus, this proves that air has weight. As the air goes out of the balloon, that end of the stick having the inflated balloon tilts, as its weight is now not countered by the burst balloon. Nothing has changed except that the air of one of the balloons has gone out and so it is not contributing to keeping the stick balanced in a horizontal position.

Does the air contract, as it cools?- Science Mug experiment

Β Take a little water in a flask and heat it. After sometime, when the water starts boiling, remove the flask away from the flame and fix a balloon on the mouth of the flask. Within a few moments, you will observe the balloon getting drawn to the flask, gradually.



Why does it happen so? Have you understood?

When the flask is heated, the air in the flask also becomes hot along with the water. So the air gets expanded and some part of its goes out of the flask. Similarly, when the water starts boiling, some part of it gets converted into steam which pushes some more air out of the flask.

Now, when a balloon is fixed on the mouth of the flask, it stops the passage of the air and the steam totally. So, when you stop heating the flask, the steam present in it will become cool and will again get converted into water. The air inside the flask too will contract, causing the pushed out air to return to fill the vacuum. But now, theΒ balloon is there to check it. Thus, only one option is left with the outside airβ€”to come back to the flask and to push the balloon also along with it inside the flask. This is what precisely happens.

Read our another experiment

What happens when air is heated- Science Mug experiment

Β What happens when the air inside a flask, one-fourth filled with water and having a fixed rubber cork pierced through by a long glass tube whose lower end is lying sunken in the water, isΒ heated?

Take a flask made of thin glass and fill one-fourth of it with water. Fix a rubber or cork-stopper tightly onΒ its mouth with a glass tube passing through the stopper. Make sure that the lower part of the tube remains immersed in the water. All the joints of the flask must remain airtight or else you won't succeed in your experiment. Now, rub both of your hands together and place them on that part of the flask which is above the water-level. Next, place a piece of cloth heated in the sun on the flask. What do you see? The water rises up in the tube both the times on its own.



Can you understand why it so happens? In fact, as you have guessed correctly, the heat of your hands and the piece of cloth cause expansion of the air in the bottle. This in turn exerts pressure on the water and the pressure thus caused forces some water to rise up in the tube.

Read our other experiments

Air expands on heating- Science Mug experiment

Β For this experiment, you will need a flaskβ€”a special type of glass vesselβ€”which you can easily procure from any shop dealing in laboratory equipments. You are already seeing its shape in the adjoining illustration.

In previous the experiment also, you will do well if you use a flask instead of an ordinary bottle. Fix a balloon on the mouth of the flask and then heat the flask, slowly. Now tell me, what will happen? If you have carefully followed the earlier experiments, you can easily tell without any hesitation that the balloon will inflate as it fills with air. But from where the air which fills the balloon come?



The answer is very simple, isn't it? It always seems so when you have comprehended the phenomenon fully. It must be quite clear from the earlier experiments that air expands when heated. The same is the reason here as well. When the flask is heated, the air inside it expands and as it needs more room in this condition, it goes out of flask the and inflates the balloon.

Read our other experiments

Effect of heat on air- Science mug experiment

Β To conduct this experiment, you will need a flask type bottle with cork or rubber stopper and a slender tube. Drill a hole in the cork and insert the tube through the hole. Then fix the cork along with the tube tightly on the mouth of the bottle. Lac or grease can be used to make the joints air-tight. Keep one thing in your mind that the thinner the glass of the bottle, the better will be the success of the experiment.



Now, turn the bottle upside down and hold it in such a way that the other end of the tube remains immersed in the water kept in some vessel. Now, ask one of your friends or a member of your family to rub his hands and hold the bottle. You will see some bubbles rushing from the mouth of the tube to the surface of the water and bursting out there.

Now, do one thing more! Take a piece of cloth spread out in the sun and fold it to wrap it around the bottle. See, what happens? What do you say? Some more bubbles come from the mouth of the tube and appear on the water surface. Don't they?

It is so because the heat of the hands or the warmth piece of the cloth permeates through the air inside the bottle to cause it to expand. That part of the expanded air which cannot be contained in the bottle comes out through the tube and can be seen in the form of bubbles.

Read our another experiment.

Homemade barometer, how to make this- Science mug experiment

Β The device used for measuring the atmospheric pressure is called a barometer. Why don't you make one yourself and see how it works and measures the atmospheric pressure?

Lets start the experiment

Take a wide-mouthed bottle and stretch the neck of a balloon clamping it on its mouth. Bind it also with the help of a rubber band in such a way that the balloon is fully stretched on the mouth of the bottle. Now, take a drinking straw and attach one end of it on the centre of the stretched balloon with 'Quick-fix' (an adhesive agent). Then, continue to hold the straw in the same position till the 'Quick-fix' gets dry. After accomplishing this, you have to do only one more job β€” to set a white strip of cardboard by the side of the bottle in such a way that it remains standing upright, just behind the free end of the straw. Graduate this cardboard strip with the marks indicating 'high and low' degree signs. Now, your barometer is ready.Β 



As you know, when the atmospheric pressure is high, it will exert a similar pressure in all the directions. So much so, that the pressure on all the sides of the bottle will be equal, causing slight deflation in the balloon towards the inside of the bottle. This in turn will put pressure on the attached end of the straw and its other end will rise higher to indicate the increase in the pressure.

On the contrary, if the atmospheric pressure decreases, the balloon will not be deflated. But if the pressure becomes so low as to be even less than the air pressure inside the bottle, it will inflate the balloon and the free end of the straw, quite obviously, will indicate the decrease in the atmospheric pressure.

Do our other exciting experiments

Importance of atmospheric air pressure- Science Mug experiment

Β The atmospheric air pressure is extremely beneficial for us, for its absence would have made it impossible for us to drink anything through the straw.

So lets start the experiment

Take some water or any other drink of your choice in a glass tumbler. Put two straws into it. Now hold one of the free upper ends of the straw by your mouth and suck in air from it. This suction will mean that you are drawing out part of the air held inside the straw.



The air outside the straw starts asserting the moment part of the air from inside the straw reaches your mouth. It starts putting pressure on the drink to fill in the vacuum created by the air sucked in by you from inside the straw pipe. This process of sucking in the air and filling in the vacuum thus created by the drink continues till the drink remains in the tumbler.

The second straw lying in the tumbler remains unfilled by the drink as the conditions of varying air pressure do not apply on it.

Read our other exciting experiments.

Test your lungs stamina

Β This experiment will not only determine the power of your lungs, but its regular practice will prove to be a good exercise to tone up your entire respiratory system. Take a big shallow bowl and fill it with water to about 5 to 7 cm in height. Then take an open-mouthed big bottle or ajar, fill it fully with water and tighten its cover quite firmly. Now, hold the bottle upside down, immerse it in the water in the bowlΒ and remove its cover. Mark the level of water inside the bottle and tilt the bottle to one side. You will need a hollow rubber tube whose one end should be inserted inside the inverted bottle, leaving the other end hanging freely outside the bowl.



Now, be ready yourself to measure the power of your lungs. Inhale as deeply as you can and then blow the air forcefully inside the free end of the tube by your mouth. Observe simultaneously the volume of water you can displace and fill in the air instead. Mark this level of water also. The difference between the two marks shall determine the capacity of your lungs. But be careful that while blowing the air inside the tube, you do not either break your breath or inhale.

If by its regular practice for a few days you find the difference between the two marks increasing, deem it that you are getting the due benefit, from this exercise.

Does air occupy space

Β Keep a funnel on the mouth of a bottle and fill half of it with water. Now, while filling the remaining half of the bottle, raise the funnel, a little higher. Does the speed with which the water fills the bottle remain unchanged in both the cases?



When you keep the funnel on the mouth of the bottle and pour in water through the funnel, the speed with which the water enters the bottle is very slow. But the moment the funnel is raised a little higher, the water starts rushing in at a great speed. Do you know why this happens so? It is quite obvious. When water starts filling the bottle through the funnel, it exerts pressure on the air trapped inside the bottle, and as such, the air does not get an easy escape. Though the funnel is placed on the bottle in such a way that it covers the mouth of the bottle almost fully, yet, since the covering is not airtight, the air inside manages to get a little opening to escape. Hence, the speed with which the air inside the bottle goes out remains equal to the speed with which the water fills the bottle. Thus, when the funnel is raised a little higher, the air inside the bottle gets a free outlet to escape. It is through this outlet that water wades its way through the air in the bottle by pushing it out with great speed, quite unobtrusively.

Is an empty bottle really empty?

Take an empty glass bottle and remove its cap. Hold it upside down and immerse it into a vessel filled with water. Now watch the activity carefully. Water enters the bottle and rises up only upto a certain point. Now immerse the bottle deeper in the water. But, what is this? The level of water inside the bottle remains unchanged, while the level of water outsideΒ the bottle rises up gradually. Can you understand the reason? It is quite apparent from this experiment that there is definitely something inside the bottle which is preventing the water from entering it. What else can this invisible thing be except the air itself?




Now do one thing. Tilt the bottle a little to one side. Oh! What's this? The bubbles coming out of the mouth of the bottle are rushing noisily to the surface and meeting their end by bursting out there. These bubbles are of air only.

The air trapped inside the bottle gets an opportunity to escape when the bottle is tilted to one side, causing the water to fill the vacuum thus created by the exit of air.

Dream, an art of unconscious mind

18 February 2021 at 16:39

Β A few minute before I was in the world of my own creation, real walls, real furniture, real roof and real light balance. When I was there, I didn't identified it fake until I woke up.Β 


Hello! I am Akash and today I am going to tell you something about unconscious mind, with example of my dreams and sleep paralysis experience.Β 


A minutes before I realized I am dreaming, I were a rich business man, going somewhere in my car. Everything was looking good, sun shining high in the sky, road going backward as my car moving forward but, suddenly I found myself alone running on a dark street at middle of the night, no one was there, even not any vehicle. But I was able to see my destination which was few light bulbs hanging outside houses. Then suddenly, my mind realized that it's just a dream, just wake up. And then I woke up. But it's not the end, it's the beginning of my real fear.


When I woke up, I found myself as same as I slept. Same roof over me, same wall at side of my hands, same bed and the same blanket. Everything was looking same as my room but that was not my room, that was just an illusion which was created by my brain. I wondered about the details, because things which I really don't care in real life looks very detailed in my dreams. It proves that even we don't give attention to something but still our unconscious mind has full attention about it.


That level of detailed shocked me, I was not able to identify that fake world until I fully woke up. Another detailed was, before going to sleep at midnight I forgot to lock the door and I don't knew about it. But in that dream the door was unlocked and I knew it in dream because someone came inside the room by pushing the door. It proves that our unconscious mind has much more details about our surrounding than our conscious mind.


Well come on the topic, my real fear was sleep paralysis, when I woke up, I found myself normal but when I tried to move, I wasn't able. And then I started to feel pain in my head which was rhythmic, comes and go with increment and then decrement, this cycle of pain gone for five time and then I woke up with an impact. And then I was in the real world, but I don't know how I knew its real world. Maybe it's also an illusion of our mind.Β 


Well that topic is for another article, if you likes our posts then keep visiting our site and share this post with your family and friends and don't forget to subscribe our blog, it's totally free of cost.

A dream like Inception movie - it's creepy

15 August 2020 at 15:50

Β It's 3 o'clock of the morning and I just awaken from a creepy dream it's better to call it dreams. I want to write my whole experience before I forget it. It's just like the movie 'Inception'. So, let's start.

A dream like Inception movie - it's creepy

Suddenly, I found myself on a bed which was similar to my bed and the room which was somewhat similar to my room but not mine at all. The room was filled with yellowish red light. I don't know why, but I got goosebumps. The room was not similar to my room, because that was just next to a quite and dark road. Now, listen next. On that bed I was just going to sleep, but before sleeping I realize that there is a door towards that quite street, and I forgot to lock it. I was trying to wake up and to close it, but I was so sleepy. And in the next moment, I found myself in a toilet, the scene was not very clear but in my mind some thought was going on. And that thought was, "hurry up someone is waiting for you" and suddenly my focus goes on the window which was just above the sink. That was looking so creepy, like someone staring me through that window. But, I was in hurry and in the next moment I found myself with a guy whose face was not clear but in my mind it was clear that, I don't know him. And then I realize, I was in a public toilet. And in the next moment, I found myself again on that bed and in the same room. And then I realize that, all those incident was my dream. At that time I was thinking, "this is the real world" and when I tried to get up. Oh! I found myself suffering from sleep paralysis, but I didn't panic because I always suffer with it. But this time it was very horrible, I was just lying on that bed and trying to get up but I can't. But slowly, I managed to move my neck in right and I found the same guy who was with me after the toilet scene. Just remembered, that guy was in my dream and now he was just sitting next to me. Again a thought came in my mind "he is waiting for me, just wake up" and with this thought, I just managed to move my neck up and then that guy moved his face towards me and oh!. That was a dream. Now I am in the actual world, the time is 3 o'clock.

I was just dreaming inside my dreams. Is it not like the Inception movie? And today, for the first time I suffer with sleep paralysis in my dreams. And that was too creepy than the actual one. But now I am in the real world.

Thanks for reading.

I hope you've enjoyed reading.

Snowfall and Rainfall- the difference between snowfall and rainfall

12 August 2020 at 19:37

Β Welcome back friends this is simple science and today I am going to describe the difference between rainfall and snowfall.

Snowfall and rainfall


Water carried throughout the earth due a process called water cycle. In this process, water just change its state from liquid to gas and again to liquid. We know that, about 3/4 part of our earth surface is covered with water and rest of it is land. The sun shines throughout the day and within this period it heated water bodies to an extent that it's molecules start coming out from its surfaces. You may ask, the boiling point of water is 100℃ then why it just convert into vapour before reaching 100℃. Water molecules are just moving here and there, sliding over each other inside its container. A molecule of water can came out if it gets enough kinetic energy to just bounce up, molecules which are on the surface of water can easily came out by gaining least kinetic energy. That's why a wet cloth dry faster if we increase it's surface area. Come on our topic. Due to heat of the sun, water of the oceans, seas, river, pond and all water bodies over the earth get covered into water vapour and go up in the sky. Remember, trees also release water in the form of vapour through a process called 'transpiration'. Now, the water vapours are just going up in the sky. Some people might think that, temperature will keep rising up as we go up in the sky but it's opposite happens. Temperature will keep going down as you go higher and higher in the sky. It's because with height, density of the air keep going less and less. The heat which we feel in our surrounding is just coming from earth surfaces, buildings and other infrastructure and this is due to sunlight. I hope you're understanding what I am saying. As you know light is a form of energy which is composed of electromagnetic waves, but it is not a heat. Heat is the vibration of molecules of a material. When light falls on a body, it just give kinetic energy to its molecule, which we feel as heat. Well I'm not going to describe it here again, if you want to know deeper on this topic then you can read our previous post 'Radiation and Heat'. So, with height, temperature goes down and down. As water vapour goes up, first it get converted into clouds and then into water or snow (the process called condensation). The main cause of forming snow rather than water is, timing and temperature. When the temperature of the clouds go down then it condense and form water. During condensation process water vapour are just going closer and closer to each other as their kinetic energy is going down and down with temperature. And finally they become water droplets. But if the temperature is too less, in the area which is far from the equator then clouds do not get much time for the condensation. And they just get freeze in the form of very tiny droplets of water which we call as snow. After falling in the form of precipitation, water again go into river, seas and oceans and again to the sky and this process keep going on.


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Why glass is transparent

11 August 2020 at 23:21

Β Welcome back friends this is simple science and today I am going to describe why glass is transparent. Once this question also confused me. I always think, glass is a solid body like a wall and stone then how light passes through it. If you also get stucked in this question then read this post, I will try to describe it in a very simple way.

Why glass is transparent?


As we know that, everything in this world is composed of atoms which consists of electron, proton and netron. Atoms are the smallest part of any material which possess the properties of that material whether it is the physical or chemical property. Like a block of pure carbon (coal) burns in the presence of oxygen once it get heated to a certain temperature. This property of the block came from the property of its atoms. Each carbon atoms combines with two oxygen atom to form carbon dioxide and this chemical reaction gives heat and light.

Now take a look on the structure of an atom. An atom has a nucleus which is present at its centre. It consists of proton and neutron which is bounded with strong nuclei froce also called strong interaction. Whole mass of an atom is just concentrated at its centre. Inside an atom electrons are just revolving around the nucleus. And the distance between them is very much if we compare it with their sizes. You can better understand it with this example, if the nucleus of an hydrogen atom get the size of a football then its electron will be five kilometer away from its nucleus.

So, we can say that an atom has lots of vacant space. So here is the answer of this question. Glass is transparent because it is made up of atoms and as atoms consist lots of vacant space inside it that's why light passes easily through it and makes glass transparent. But with this answer a new question arises, that is ' If atoms consists lots of vacant space inside it then why not everything is transparent?'Β 

The answer of this question could be given with quantization of energy. Glass is composed of silicon dioxide which do not absorb any visible light. That's why all visible light can pass through a glass. Property of absorbing and reflecting light makes a material opaque. Different materials have different property of absorbing and reflecting light that's why they have there specific color. I hope you got your answer, if you want to read more about the 'quantization of energy' then, click here.


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The radiation and the heat- Why light cause heat

4 August 2020 at 02:11
Heat and radiation related very much with each other, a hot body must release radiation and a radiation must cause heat. Heat is that energy which get converted into kinetic energy from EM radiation. Well, how kinetic energy? When radiation falls onto the surface of any body then it starts transferring their energy to the molecules of that body and due which their molecules starts vibrating. And that vibration of the molecules, we call it heat. We all know, heat get transferred by two means, the first is when a body touches another body and second mean is the radiation. In this whole article I am talking about electromagnetic radiation. So whenever I call radiation then I am calling electromagnetic radiation. If two body comes in contact with surface to surface and if there is some temperature difference between them, then the heat starts flowing from hotter body to the cooler body. And when their temperature becomes equal to each other then it stops flowing or now entire molecules have the same kinetic energy.Β 



When light (radiation) strikes a body (atom), it transmits energy to the electron of its outer most shell due to which the electron jumps to the higher energy shell and instantly returns to its original place. This jumping process gives some kinetic energy to the molecule. And rest of them release as light (radiation) having longer wavelength than the incident light.Β 

Different body have different property to absorb light some of them get warm easily and some do not. Bodies which has darker colour absorb light more than a lighter one or most of the light which falls on to it get converted into longer wavelength (I.e the radiation which has less energy). As we know, radiation having higher frequency (shorter wavelength) have higher energy than the radiation having lower frequency (larger wavelength). For example-X- ray is more power full than UV ray, as it has higher frequency than UV. But don't take this sense for ionization.Β 

So, when light falls on a darker body then it's most of the energy get converted into heat and rest of them release out as light having less energy. So, darker body absorbs much light than lighter body and get warm easily than a lighter body. This phenomenon is same for lighter body but in this case most of the light get released and very few of them get converted into heat.

Why hotter body release IR radiation?


As I have described that when a body is hot, it's molecules have some kinetic energy. And due to this kinetic energy it's molecules strikes each other and due to which some amount of light energy get released. A hot body not releases only infrared radiation, it can release the radiation of almost all frequency. Light energy which can released by an hot object is totally dependent on its temperature. Higher the temperature, higher the frequency. You can observe it at a black smith shop as I had observed. When the smith put a iron rod in the furnace then the temperature of that rod start increasing, for the first few minutes you can't see any glowing in the iron rod, at that time it is releasing infrared radiation, but with time you can see some glowing in the iron rod. The temperature of the furnace is not too much that's why you can only see red light but if you can put this rod in to the center of the sun then you can see even x- ray or gamma ray,Β  oh! I'm sorry, you can't see x-ray or gamma ray.

Thanks for coming and I hope you enjoyed reading.
If you want more on this topic or if you have any questions regarding this, feel free to comment.

My experience of sleep paralysis episode-2| Real horrible story

26 April 2020 at 23:27

I want to tell you before I forgot this experience. I’ve became habitual of this experience and this was 50th or near it. I am talking about sleep paralysis, these days due to quarantine my whole timetable got vanished and I started sleeping irregularly. I sleep at late night I woke up at 5 AM and by muting the alarm I again sleep. On internet different sites shares different opinions for the cause of sleep paralysis but in my opinion irregular sleeping is the main cause. Some also says this is rare and occurs only one or two times in whole life. So, before I start talking about my own experience, I want to tell some more about it which I’ve read on the internet. During sleep paralysis sufferer goes into the state of temporary paralysis which may goes long as a minute or more. He/she will sense his/her surroundings partially. He/she may remember his experience. Sufferer can hear unusual sound, can see unknown objects or can smell unusual fragrance or may whole at same. Overall, this is very bad experience.


Β So, without wasting any time I am going to describe my whole experience. Suddenly, I find myself paralysed on my bed but I know this will not go for very long as I have experienced it before. I can hear the voices which is coming from my neighbourhood not only hear I am also understanding what they are talking about. Suddenly my focus goes on my hands and I realise not only hear I can also see my surroundings. Suddenly I felt an enormous pain in my head which started from the centre of my brain and spread like a wave in all direction. It was definitely a very bad experience but this time I want to know more about it so I don’t try to wake up, I’ve just tried to see my hands clearly. And I was very near to focus my eyes on my hands but again that pain faint me. That pain is like heart beat which is going on again and again but slower than heartbeat.Β  I again tried to see my hands and what I saw at that time, shocked me. I was able to see my hands clearly and this was first time, I can see surroundings much clear during sleep paralysis. The thing which shocked me at that time was my view, when suddenly my focus goes on an ant which was climbing on the wall, I saw that thing not smoothly that was like a video clip with a very low frame rate or like a moving GIF image. But again, that pain came and forced me to close my eyes. And I thought I can’t suffer this pain anymore and I woke up suddenly.



I've written another post on this topic please check this out.

My experience of sleep paralysis episode - 01


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And maintain your time table.

Light wave or particle

12 January 2020 at 04:54

Light wave or particle


Hello! Welcome back to our blog Simple Science. Today I’m going to write something about light, what is light? Light is a form of energy which can travel in absence of any medium. Or Light is an electromagnetic wave having electric and magnetic field perpendicular to each other and both of them is perpendicular to its path of propagation. Behaviour of light is one of the most confusing question in the field of science and also it raised several theories to describe its behaviour. I’m going to describe few of them.


Light wave or particle

First one is the Newton’s corpuscles theory


According to this theory, light is a particle having some energy. This theory of light was able to describe the spectrum of light and reflection of light. The colours of light are due to size difference of corpuscles each size of the corpuscles is for each colour. However, this theory was applicable somewhere but this theory can’t able to describe the refraction of light. According to this theory when a light particle hit any surface then some amount of energy gets absorbed by the surface and rest reflected by it. And in terms of refraction this theory states that, when a light particle is travelling in lighter medium and get incident on denser medium then it gets attracted towards denser medium and due to which its speed increases in denser medium. But actually, its opposite happens.


Huygens wave theory of light


This was the fourth wave theory of light. According to this theory light travel in the form of wave which travels through a medium called luminiferous ether or simply ether and this ether is present everywhere in this universe. This theory also says that light wave is a longitudinal wave which was not correct. But theory was able to describe why light travel at constant speed in the space. Sound is a longitudinal wave which requires a medium to propagate and it have two property (i) Frequency and (ii) Intensity which determine by its source and third is its speed which is not determined by its source. The speed of sound is determined by the medium through which it travel. If you increase the volume of your speaker there will be no change in its speed. And same thing is with light however it is blue or red or UV its speed will be constant in a medium. I have another example, if you drop a 20-gm stone or a 20 kg in a pond the speed of the disturbance will be constant which will be determined by the water not by the cause of disturbance (i.e. stone). This theory has explained everything about the light but there was no evidence of the ether. And finally, the idea of ether was collapsed.


The dual nature of light.


Light shows wave as well as particle nature when we observe it. When we are observing its wave nature at that time its particle nature collapse and when we are observing its particle nature at that time its wave nature collapse. In photoelectric effect light observed as rain of particles or rain of photons while in double slit experiment it starts behaving like wave.

Light has exposed great mysteries of this universe since physicist started understanding it and there is no doubt it can helps us a lot if we observe it more deeply. It can open the path of quantum world, time machine and can exposed this whole cosmos.


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A revolutionary discovery in Max Born Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Berlin

22 December 2019 at 23:08
A revolutionary discovery in Max Born Institute of Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Berlin
Image Source: Wikipedia.com


Today there is a great role of technology in the field of medical and drug development. And day by day technology is giving best and best techniques and machines to doctors. So, let’s begin the topic.



Today, I will talk about chirality of molecule, why we (druggists, doctors, etc) have to know about it. So first we have to understand β€œwhat is chirality?”

Like our right and left hands some molecules also have its mirror twins. However, they look very similar but their properties may be very different. For example, our hands are very similar but we can not wear our left-hand glove in our right-hand so, we can say that this is due to chirality of our hands. Chirality of molecules plays very essential role in chemistry, biology and drug development. We must have to know the chirality of molecules because whether some molecules look very similar but if one can cure us then it is quite possible that its mirror twin (enantiomer) can kill us. It is extremely hard to tell opposite chiral until they interact with each other. And to find the difference currently we are using light.



Chiral Molecules


Light is the fastest way to distinguish these chiral molecules. However, ordinary light can not sense molecular handness (or chirality) very perfect.

Researchers from Max Born Institute for non-linear optics and short pulse spectroscopy (MBI), the Israel Institute of Technology (Technion) and Technische Universitat Berlin have now shown how to generate and characterize an entirely new type of light called β€˜Synthetic Chiral Light’, which identifies molecules handness exceptionally distinctly.



So, this is a very simple explanation about chirality and description about new discovery. Thanks for coming and I hope you have enjoyed reading. I will be keep posting regularly from now so you can bookmark my site and you can follow β€˜simple science’ Facebook page.


Does battery weigh less when it is discharged?

20 December 2019 at 02:42


Does battery weigh less when it is discharged?


To find its answer first we have to look inside a battery.
Battery is a group of cells which contains two electrode (i) Anode and (ii) Cathode each electrode form a half cell where oxidation and reduction goes side by side. See what happens in a battery when it gives out electrical energy or works as galvanic cell. Let me to take very common and a simple example of a cell.

Take two beaker one filled with ZnSO4 and another with CuSO4 and two electrodes one made up of zinc and another of copper. Now each of them is dipped into their corresponding ion containing solution. Means Zn dipped into ZnSO4 solution and Cu dipped into CuSO4 solution. And each electrode is connected with wires which is connected to a bulb, for our convenient we can connect a switch. And a salt bridge should be connected between both beakers. This salt bridge completes the circuit.

Now at zinc electrode Zn2+ starts mixing with the solution due to which zinc electrode becomes negative and solution becomes positive. It is because, when Zn 2+ comes from zinc electrode, it left 2 electrons in the zinc electrode due to which it turns negative. And as Zn 2+ dissolved in the solution that is why the solution becomes positive. At the same time, at copper electrode Cu 2+ ion from the CuSO4 solution get deposited at copper electrode. Due this process copper electrode gets positive charge and at the same time copper sulphate solution get negative charge.

This is spontaneous chemical reaction in which chemical energy is converting into electrical energy. Not any mass is coming out from the system.

Now, see what happens in a Lithium ion battery while charging and discharging.

First of all let me compare a lithium ion battery with above battery. In lithium ion battery currently lithium cobalt oxide is used as cathode and anode is made up of mixture lithium and graphite. And as like the cell which I have described above lithium ion cell also works in the same manner while discharging. Hence there is no loss of mass while discharging of lithium ion battery and also there is no gain of mass while charging of lithium ion battery. While discharging of lithium ion battery oxidation takes place at graphite-lithium electrode and reduction takes place at lithium cobalt oxide. And while charging these processes get reversed.
Discharging is a spontaneous process in which chemical energy get converted into electrical energy that is we get β€˜G’ negative. On the other hand, charging is non-spontaneous process in which we apply electrical energy to make potential difference in the cell and when this potential difference reaches the equilibrium our phone notifies battery is full and from now no further reaction will takes place in the cell. Well, this is a short post only about the myth I am not going to make this more puzzling, and as this is Simple Science.πŸ˜‰


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